Center Pivot Irrigation

The Center Pivot was invented in 1948 by farmer Frank Zybach, who lived in Strasburg, Colorado.

The Center Pivot is an automated irrigation method that covers around 40 percent of the world’s croplands. The cost of the unit and installation is relatively high and runs around 1,100 USD per hectare (Ha). Therefore it is suited for large areas. The area covered by a Center Pivot can be from 3.5 Ha. to 60 Ha. The Center Pivots last for a long time, around 15-20 years depending of the quality of the equipment and the level of maintenance.The Center Pivot is built from towers based on wheels, and spans between them.  The spans  of the machine  is made from aluminum or galvinized steel pipes in differernt sizes. These pipes can be  6”, 8”, and 10” in diameter and function as a structural frame and as  the water carrier. there is an option to add an overhang segment (which just like it sounds hangs in the air on one side) that runs between 5m to 25m in a smaller diameter pipe. At the edge of the last span there can be an option to attach a corner system that can irrigate the difference between a circle and the square surrounding it. *See Diagram A. (In the diagram you can see an example of a 400m radius Center Pivot that covers 50.27 Ha).

Center Pivot  Diagram A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Center Pivot is anchored in its base to a concrete pad footing and rotates around a fixed point. In that point is also the water source and main control electric panel. This machine rotates continuously while irrigating. Each tower moves in short, intermittent steps to maintain its alignment, since each segment covers different areas of the circle.Between the steel segments are emitters (sprinklers) that can be either rotating or stationary. Each type of emitter is designed for a specific set of operating conditions. Today you can find many types of suitable emitters for different purposes.Size and the uniformity of the sprinklers are calculated before installation and are mounted from the spans in different spaces, between 1.5m to 6m.

Center Pivots can be a great solution for large, relatively flat areas because of low maintenance costs and simplicity of operation. However, they aren’t appropriate for odd-shaped fields or complex topography.

Center Pivot Sapns and Overhang

Salinity stress in olives and drip irrigartion by Ian M. Beiersdorf M.A., M.Sc

Israeli agricultural research is world class in its scope and its findings. Across the world, Israeli breakthroughs in plant physiology, genetics, and technology are providing flexibility to growers in a rapidly changing climate. However, these strides would not be possible if it wasn’t for the most basic, and ingenious, technological breakthrough since the advent of irrigated agriculture fields.

Israeli drip irrigation systems have enabled water-use efficiency unlike any other irrigation system available. With drip irrigation, individual plants water-use requirements can be managed. On a whole-field basis, the drip irrigation system supplies water directly to the plant roots, while limiting the possibly wasteful effects of evaporation. Every drop of water can be managed and conserved with drip irrigation systems.Olives

As an agricultural researcher, I am highly indebted to the development of drip irrigation My research focuses on the different types of salinity stress an olive tree may experience; salinity from variable salinity in irrigation water, and salinity derived from variable amounts of irrigation water. My olive trees must receive a daily, controlled amount of irrigation water; otherwise my experiment will have too many variables to investigate my hypothesis. The controlled pulses of irrigation water from the emitters allow me to isolate the various environmental variables from the variables I wish to control.

When my research is finished, I hope that my findings can be implemented on a whole-field scale. Salinity research will further optimize drip irrigation. The future of drip irrigation looks incredibly promising, as we all will inevitably have to make more from less. Drip irrigation is pivotal in our pursuit of economically efficient and environmentally friendly technologies.

Advantages of drip irrigation

While agriculture produces food, fuel, and fiber essential for human survival, it is still dependent on water, an essential ingredient in crop production. Rainfall is the main source of water butHigh-End Drip Irrigation
when it does not occur in the right amounts and at the required time, drip irrigation provides the best alternative. Drip irrigation has been in existence for several years, and has since evolved into the best method of irrigation.

The merits of drip irrigation are noteworthy: the system pays for itself quickly, irrespective of the initial cost of installation. Shifting to drip irrigation is more of buying and learning to apply a new technology, which requires some research and an experienced company to do the design and installation. A trusted professional can custo
m drip irrigation highly for your individual operations. Before including it in your next budget, therefore, consider the following advantages:

It uses water economically

Using irrigation means that rain is scarce or unpredictable, and water becomes an important resource in this case. Drip irrigation is designed in such a manner that there is little to no waste. Where drip irrigation pipes are properly designed and laid, water loss is minimized. Drippers are placed at measured intervals inside the pipe, which means water is sustained for some time and it is delivered directly to plant roots to minimize running. Similarly, soluble fertilizers are fed to the plant together with the irrigation water instead of spraying foliar fertilizers independently, which too reduces the amount of water spent on the crops.

Reduced cost

The initial cost of setting up a drip irrigation system may be high but as mentioned before, it pays back so quickly and earns high profits. Remember, there are little to no labor costs involved especially after establishment of the system. This means once it is in place, you will only need few maintenance services and your crops are served with enough water all year round.

Prevents weed population

Choosing the right type of emitters is essential. while using a professional emitter device, weed population is decreased and the ability of the plants to utilize energy for themselves is increased. Therefore, less chemical will be used to prevent weed growth.
*Some amazing results of weed reduction showed with the use of sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI) .

It is easier to maintain

Selecting the right company or professional to design the system for you implies that you will have an efficient design that considers the future maintence of the system. Maintenance of drip irrigation is fast and easy as long as you have the set of accurate design plans that will serve you for the long run, in case you need an update or change.

In summary, drip irrigation remains one of the most highly effectively irrigation strategies. There are many Advantages of drip irrigation However, it is not a do-it-yourself installation. Consider the services of a design and installation professional and you will be treated to the best irrigation system for subsistence and commercial purposes.